Cannabidiol (CBD) may be regarded as the counterpart of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), since it suppresses the effect. It affects, among others, analgesic, anxiolytic, calming slightly, intraocular pressure-lowering, anti-epileptic and antibiotic.
Hemp and Medicine
In today's medicine, there would be a number of uses for cannabis products. Unfortunately, the intake of natural cannabis products for medical purposes in Central Europe with the exception of Holland is still not legal. Instead, at great expense synthetic cannabinoid compounds, such as dronabinol produced, which can be prescribed under strict medical supervision.
However, many patients believe that smoked cannabis looks much better than the synthetic or semi-synthetic preparations. This is probably due to the unique combination of active ingredients of the cannabis plant, which lacks the synthetic preparations containing only THC. In particular the absence of cannabidiol (CBD) is likely to be detrimental.
Another problem is that many doctors are still a negative attitude about cannabis, or not yet know about the medical benefits of cannabinoids know.
Sativex ® spray approved cannabis extract against spasticity in multiple sclerosis in Switzerland
Wednesday, January 29th, 2014
The Sativex spray with cannabis extract for use in the oral cavity is already in several European countries in trade (for example, in Germany and the UK). In Switzerland and in France the drug recently got regulatory approval, but is not currently in distribution.
Included in the Sativex spray is a thick extract of cannabis flowers and cannabis leaves.
This extract is composed of equal parts of the phytocannabinoids tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). The two active ingredients affect the endocannabinoid system, which is involved in the regulation of neuronal and neuromuscular signal transmission.
In multiple sclerosis patients, this system is severely compromised, as it comes as a result of neurodegeneration in a reduction of endogenous cannabinoids.
In the Sativex spray the psychoactive effects of THC by the antipsychotic CBD is überwiegendst prevented.
The indication of the Sativex spray is very limited: Sativex is used for symptom improvement in patients with moderate to severe spasticity due to multiple sclerosis, when the symptoms can not be adequately relieved by other anti-spastic drug therapy. In addition, an initial therapeutic trial must have produced clinically significant improvement in spasticity associated with the symptoms.
It is a titration of up to two weeks is required to achieve the optimum dose.
The patient may gradually by a puff of spray per day increase the dose up to a maximum of 12 sprays daily until optimal relief of symptoms occurs. Distances of at least 15 minutes should elapse between the bursts. The Sativex spray is administered under the tongue or on the inside of the cheek
The "New York Times" is one of the most respected media outlets in the USA for the legalization of cannabis has spoken. In a sensational editorials have been for more than four decades valid prohibition with the times of Prohibition, from 1920 to 1933 is compared, were prohibited as manufacture and sale of alcohol in the United States strictly. It stated cannabis addiction bring compared to alcohol and tobacco dependence "relatively minor problems" with it.
In the editorial, the authors pointed out that pleasure-loving people would have been on drinking during Prohibition, which "law-abiding citizens have been turned into criminals and crime syndicates flourished." In addition, today were young black men, according to FBI statistics clearly bear the brunt of the result is "racist" cannabis prohibition.
According to the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation in 2012, there were over 650,000 arrests for possession of marijuana - much more than cocaine, heroin and related drugs. U.S. President Barack Obama had already indicated that poor youth who belong to social minorities, often for marijuana use in jail migrate as better-off peers.
Although the "New York Times" said in her - even for internal editorial controversial - contribution for a ban on the sale of marijuana to adolescents under 21 years. For healthy adults seem "moderate consumption" but to pose a risk, which is why the law adopted by Congress at the federal level more than four decades prohibition was untimely. On the website of the newspaper some readers warned against underestimating the danger of the popular "gateway drug", others called the legalization overdue.
Hashish and marijuana, the two most famous cannabis products, today the world's most consumed illegal drugs. Consumers see are usually not as addicts. Indeed a addictive nature of cannabis has been able to be clearly supported by any single scientific study.
Since prehistoric times hemp in Europe and Asia is used as a drug, remedies and fiber supplier. In the last 2000 years, the hemp widespread in Africa and has been incorporated in the culture of many indigenous tribes. After the discovery of America, hemp was by the conquerors in the New World.
The hemp could play an important role in today's medicine. So he may very well fight that occurs as a side effect of chemotherapy nausea for instance. Also in the Ayurvedic medicine and homeopathy he has found entrance.
Today, cannabis is banned almost worldwide. Objective scientific studies were not a decisive factor for the ban. Rather, it is to aspirations of the USA back in the 30s. The reasons for this were racist, power-political and economic motives. Not only possession and consumption of hemp products were criminalized by this ban, but also the cultivation. This was not only the production of medicines from cannabis illegal, but also its use as a source of fiber, which destroyed an entire industry.
Meanwhile, the use of cannabis in many countries will (again) be tolerated. The Medicinal Use of Cannabis, however, is still not legal. However, there are prescription drugs with synthetic or semi-synthetic cannabinoids, which are used in many countries. Their effect is however often experienced by consumers unpleasant than those of natural cannabis, such as hashish or marijuana.
This is, interestingly, not as standard practice moved as cannabis ingredient THC into the center, but the cannabidiol (CBD).
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is always shown as the main active ingredient in cannabis. But cannabis contains 66 different cannabinoids with different modes of action.
For THC the therapeutic use in some situations is difficult by the intoxicating effect. In addition, do not reach all patients with a pure THC preparation - in Switzerland as dronabinol in trade - a satisfactory treatment outcome.
Unlike THC CBD developed no psychoactive “high.” effect.
On the contrary, according to recent studies, CBD should neutralize the psychoactive effect of the THC's or at least slow down. Moreover, it should also have a cancer and anti-inflammatory effect. Already known for some time was its anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, and nausea-relieving effect. In addition, CBD is only slightly toxic and has few side effects, emphasizes the pharmacist Rudolf cautery, a specialist in cannabis at the University of Bern.
For a long time the research around the use of cannabis in medicine, according to cautery has mainly focused on the active ingredient THC. Cannabinoids have been used primarily to treat neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis or epilepsy, against the side effects of chemotherapy or for chronic pain. The discovery of the CBD and its potency of cannabis gave new impetus to international research, says branding iron. For the natural remedies cannabis thereby always open new research approaches, such as the application in breast cancer, or psychosis. Medicinalcannabis has become increasingly important in recent years.
One consequence of this cannabis research is the introduction of Sativex - a drug with a combination of THC and CBD, may contribute to relief of pain and discomfort in multiple sclerosis.
Cannabis Research: Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis is a disease that causes chronic degeneration of the central nervous system that affects the brain and spinal cord. This causes a progressive loss of motor control, vision, sensation and balance, as well as inflammation and muscle weakness.
Studies in this area:
1) The effect of cannabinoids on spasticity and ataxia in multiple sclerosis (Effects of cannabinoids on spasticity and ataxia in multiple sclerosis - 1989)
This research describes how doctors were surprised when they saw that the symptoms of their MS patents improved after he had smoked cannabis on its own initiative. When this was placed in a clinical trial, it was found that cannabinoids appear to improve the symptoms of spasticity, and ataxia of the patient. Published in "Journal of Neurology."
2) efficacy, safety and tolerability of an orally administered cannabis extract in the treatment of spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study (Efficacy, safety and tolerability of an orally administered cannabis extract in the treatment of spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study - 2004)
This research aimed to find out how patients suffering from spasticity caused by MS, responded to treatment with cannabis. It was found that the use of cannabis seemed safe and had an acceptable level of side effects, while the amount of spasms occurring has been reduced. Published in the "Multiple Sclerosis Journal."
3) Randomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis in (Randomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis - 2005)
This study should dargelegen the impact on cannabis based medicine in central pain has caused by MS - a symptom that is largely unresponsive to other forms of treatment. It was found that cannabis-based medicines in reducing the perceived intensity of pain were effective and also wore beige, to reduce the amount of sleep disorders in patients. Published in the journal "Neurology."
4) An open pilot study of cannabis extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis (An open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis - 2004)
A study that was published in "Multiple Sclerosis Journal", aimed to review personal opinions that said that marijuana could help alleviate symptoms of Harnwegprobleme caused by MS. It has been found that the use of marijuana reduced, a decrease in the number of incontinence episodes, and the precipitated amount. It was also reported that the patient felt less pain and spasticity decreased sleep sic improved.